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Fourth and fifth generations

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This is the third and final article about the computer history and generations. As mentioned last week, different generations of computer made the phenomenal present of computing. First, second and third generations created a stable platform for the fourth and fifth generations. Let’s go through those two generations with modern technology.  

Fourth Generation (1971 to 1984)
The computers of fourth generation used Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. It contained 5,000 transistors with other circuit elements, and their associated circuits on a single chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls on a single chip.

In 1981, IBM introduced its first computer for home users, and in 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more. Everyday products began to use microprocessors. Fourth generation’s computers were so reliable and powerful than previous generation computers. As a result, it gave rise to Personal Computer (PC) revolution.

In this generation real time, time sharing, networks, distributed operating system were used. High level languages like C, C++, DBASE, etc., were used in this generation. Computers were cheap at this time. CRAY-1(Super Computer), CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer), PDP 11 are examples of the fourth generation computers. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also had the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

Fifth

Fifth generation computing devices, based on parallel processing hardware and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets means and method of making computers think like human beings. The period started from the 80s decade and still it counts. In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components.

Technology of fifth generation is still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, image recognition that are being used today. All the high-level languages like C and C++, Java or .Net, are used in this generation.

The goal of the fifth generation is to develop the device which could respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will be used in this technology. Fifth generation use super large scale integrated chips. This generation computers have fast processing speed ever. These computers have the ability of solving problem, make decisions, logical reasoning. Desktop, laptop, notebook, ultra book, chrome book computers belong to fifth generation.


Modern technology has spread in every aspects of the world. Because it makes our things easy. Robotics, neural networks, gaming technology, graphic designing, web development sides are taken more priority in modern world. Software plays huge roll with human life. Actually, single code can change most of things today. Body-adapted wearable electronics, agricultural drones, ultra private smartphones, genome editing, mobile collaboration, brain-computer interfaces, neuromorphic chips are the leading technologies today.

Though technology develops, it can’t overtake human brain. Because all  inventions are done by human brain. So, all things come under the human brain. However, ancient computer scientists have given huge strength to current computer scientists to make latest technologies. Experiments of those scientistsare excellent to create current new computer technologies.

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